BaCC 19 Oct 2023 Pic

Confidentiality in Arbitration: Protecting Business Secrets

First published on 19 October 2023 – on the BBaC Website

Confidentiality in arbitration is a vital protective measure for businesses, ensuring that sensitive details of disputes remain private. Business secrets, intellectual property, and proprietary data form the lifeblood of modern enterprises. When disagreements arise, the prospect of these assets becoming public knowledge can be disconcerting. Arbitration assures that disputes can be settled without jeopardising this critical information. As data moves more fluidly in today’s digital age and business secrets become even more integral to competitive advantage, maintaining confidentiality during conflict resolution becomes all the more essential. This piece, the 22nd in our Understanding Arbitration: A Guide for Businesses series, aims to equip businesses and users of arbitration with practical insights on upholding this confidentiality, ensuring that while conflicts are addressed, business secrets remain just that – secret.

Why Confidentiality Matters

Choosing arbitration offers businesses an environment distinct from public court litigation, primarily due to its commitment to confidentiality. This commitment is a desirable feature and a protective barrier for enterprises operating in competitive sectors. For instance, consider the adverse implications of exposing strategic blueprints, financial details, or trade secrets during litigation. The fallout can extend beyond the immediate dispute.

Reputation, built over years, can be compromised in a matter of days with leaked information. Stakeholders and consumers, once trusting, may become sceptical or wary. Equally concerning is the potential advantage handed to competitors. They could capitalise on insights into a company’s challenges or future intentions. Furthermore, the possible devaluation of intellectual property, where vast investment and time have been channelled, becomes a pressing concern.

For businesses, the value of confidentiality lies in safeguarding reputation, strategy, and invaluable assets. This significance is amplified for international entities. Arbitration offers them an avenue to protect sensitive information without the complexities of navigating unfamiliar local court systems.

Legal Frameworks Supporting Confidentiality

National laws diverge on the question of confidentiality in arbitration. The UK’s Arbitration Act 1996, while not directly stipulating a confidentiality obligation, has been interpreted by courts to imply one. In Australia, the landmark decision in Esso Australia Resources Ltd v Plowman highlighted that there wasn’t an automatic implied term of confidentiality in arbitration proceedings. This spurred parties to incorporate express provisions or rely on specific arbitration rules to guarantee confidentiality. Consequently, Australia’s International Arbitration Act 1974 was amended to include express provisions safeguarding confidentiality in certain circumstances. French law makes a distinction between domestic and international arbitration. Domestic arbitration proceedings are considered confidential unless parties stipulate otherwise. However, as confirmed in NAFIMCO v. Foster Wheeler Trading Company (Paris Court of Appeal, 22 January 2004, Rev. Arb. 2004.647), international arbitration is not automatically confidential.

In contrast, the Arbitration Ordinance of Hong Kong and Delta State Arbitration Law provide clear confidentiality parameters from the outset, demanding discretion from the parties involved.

Differences also persist under institutional rules. Arbitrations are not automatically confidential under the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) Rules. The 2021 ICC Rules, echoing the 2012 version, empower tribunals to make confidentiality orders tailored to specific cases, but only if a party seeks it. This differs from the London Court of International Arbitration (LCIA) Rules, where confidentiality is a built-in feature, with certain exceptions.

Given these variations, businesses must carefully select a legal and institutional framework that best suits their confidentiality requirements, ensuring protection and trust in the arbitral process.

Practical Advantages of Upholding Confidentiality

Maintaining confidentiality in arbitration delivers tangible benefits to businesses, the foremost being protection from potential competitive setbacks. Consider a scenario where trade strategies, pricing structures, or innovative procedures become public. If competitors gain access to this information, they could recalibrate their approach to undermine a business’s market position, thus posing significant commercial risks.

Confidentiality also plays a central role in fostering trust within the arbitration process. When parties are assured that discussions remain private, there is an enhanced willingness to be forthright, leading to a more informed and efficient resolution process. Transparency within the confines of the arbitration room can accelerate the resolution and prevent the escalation of disputes.

Another critical advantage of confidentiality is the preservation of business relationships. Disputes are common in business, but airing these disagreements publicly can strain partnerships that have taken years to nurture. Resolving differences privately allows parties to address issues without the added strain of public scrutiny, potentially saving partnerships and fostering longer-term collaboration. Moreover, avoiding public disputes shields businesses from the prying eyes of the media, minimising the risk of speculative or adverse publicity that can tarnish a firm’s reputation.

Common Pitfalls and How to Address Them

While arbitration offers a shield of confidentiality, unforeseen pitfalls can disrupt this protection. Proactively identifying and addressing these challenges keeps the arbitration process confidential.

1. Document Management Errors: A frequent challenge is mishandling vital documents, resulting in unintended exposure.

Solution: Adopt rigorous document management protocols. Store documents on secure encrypted digital platforms and allow access only to essential personnel. Conduct routine checks to ensure compliance with these protocols.

2. External Communications: Sometimes, details of the arbitration process might leak through casual conversations or communications with external stakeholders.

Solution: Advise all participants on the critical importance of maintaining discretion. Hold periodic sessions to reinforce the need for confidentiality and offer guidance on safe communication practices.

3. Third-Party Expert Involvement: Engaging external consultants can introduce confidentiality risks, especially if they aren’t well-versed in arbitration’s confidentiality requirements.

Solution: Embed strong confidentiality clauses within consultant contracts and define their role clearly. Monitor their compliance and activities closely to ensure no breaches occur.

4. Digital Communication Vulnerabilities: Digital communication, if not managed correctly, can expose sensitive information.

Solution: Prioritise encrypted communication channels for all arbitration matters. Ensure every tool, whether for document storage or virtual communication, adheres to the highest security standards.

Practical Steps to Enhance Confidentiality

To ensure the arbitration process remains confidential, businesses should adopt a strategic approach encompassing venue selection, clarity in agreements, controlled internal communication, and the use of secure tools.

1. Choosing the Right Venue: Arbitration venues vary in their approach to confidentiality. Companies benefit from selecting venues recognised for upholding discretion. It is beneficial to assess the historical performance of venues and gather feedback from industry counterparts to make an informed decision.

2. Drafting Clear Agreements: A well-drafted arbitration agreement eliminates ambiguities surrounding confidentiality. The agreement should distinctly define confidential data and specify protective measures. Clearly detailing these aspects ensures that all participants remain aware of their duties and the boundaries. The sample clause below illustrates these principles:

Dispute Resolution through Arbitration: All disputes, controversies, or claims arising out of or in connection with this Agreement, including any question regarding its existence, interpretation, validity, breach or termination, shall be referred to and finally resolved by arbitration.

Arbitration Venue and Rules: The arbitration shall take place in [City, Country], under the rules of [Name of the Arbitration Institution, e.g., “the London Court of International Arbitration (LCIA)”]. The language of the arbitration shall be [Language, e.g., “English”].

Confidentiality of Proceedings:

a. Both parties agree that all matters related to the arbitration, including the content of hearings, evidence presented, and awards granted, shall be kept strictly confidential and shall not be disclosed to any third party without the express written consent of the other party, except as required by law.

b. All documents, testimony, and records related to the arbitration shall be treated as confidential information. Both parties shall take all necessary steps to ensure their representatives and advisors adhere to this confidentiality obligation.

c. The obligation to maintain confidentiality shall extend to the final resolution or award. The existence or content of the arbitrator’s award shall not be disclosed other than:

i. To legal or financial advisors of the parties;

ii. As required by law or regulatory requirements;

iii. To enforce or challenge the award.

Exceptions: Notwithstanding the above, a party may disclose such information to the extent that it (i) is or becomes public knowledge other than as a result of a breach of this clause, or (ii) is required to be disclosed by judicial or administrative process.

This clause is illustrative and is not meant to provide legal advice or replace counsel from a qualified legal professional.

3. Controlling Internal Communication: While internal discussions around arbitration are inevitable, delineating boundaries is essential. Companies should determine who has permission to discuss the proceedings and what information they can share. Regular reminders and perhaps even brief training sessions can help reinforce the significance of confidentiality and guide employees in maintaining it.

4. Using Secure Communication Tools: Modern communication tools offer enhanced security features tailored for sensitive processes like arbitration. Companies should opt for platforms that provide end-to-end encryption and secure storage solutions. Maintaining exclusive channels for arbitration-related communications can also minimise potential security risks.

Addressing Confidentiality Breaches

Breaches in confidentiality, while unfortunate, require decisive action to safeguard a business’s interests.

1. Assess the Situation: Once a breach is suspected, assess the extent and impact of the exposure. Identify the information disclosed and determine how the breach occurred.

2. Engage Legal Expertise: Seek advice from a legal professional specialising in arbitration. Their expertise will guide the next steps, ensuring compliance with legal requirements.

3. Mitigation: Take immediate steps to contain the breach. This might include retrieving or deleting exposed documents or issuing a cease-and-desist notice to parties that might have unlawfully obtained the confidential information.

4. Mandatory Notifications: If the law requires, inform affected parties about the breach. This action upholds trust while meeting legal obligations.

5. Seeking Redress: Legal consequences for breaches can vary, but generally, businesses can pursue remedies such as injunctions to prevent further disclosure, damages for any losses suffered, and, in some instances, specific performance.

6. Future Prevention: After addressing the breach, evaluate its root cause. Introduce refined measures to prevent recurrence. This might mean revising protocols or introducing new measures based on lessons learned.

Conclusion and Final Thoughts

Confidentiality in arbitration safeguards crucial business interests. Its role is significant: defending reputations and maintaining competitive edges. Businesses must implement stringent measures to engage this protection, from drafting explicit agreements to decisive responses to confidentiality breaches. A passive stance is not an option. Every business must actively reinforce its practices, consistently refining and adjusting to meet the demands of the arbitration process. In doing so, they protect their current interests and set a precedent for future resilience and adaptability.


The insights presented in this blog post aim to furnish readers with a broad understanding of arbitration within the context of global business. This material does not purport to provide legal advice, but rather serves as an informative resource. Specific decisions concerning arbitration and its relevance should always be made in consultation with qualified legal experts. Given the intricate variations and legal implications of arbitration across different jurisdictions, it is paramount to collaborate with legal professionals well-acquainted with the precise legal framework pertinent to your circumstances.

If you find this content valuable and have further questions, or if you require guidance on the detailed aspects of arbitration, please feel free to reach out to our dedicated team at [email protected]. We stand ready to guide you through these processes and address any areas of concern.

Previous Articles:

Enforcing Arbitration Awards: Global and Domestic Views

Challenging Arbitration Awards: Grounds and Processes

Correcting and Interpreting Arbitration Awards

The Arbitral Award: Insights on the Outcome & Implications

The Process and Grounds for Removing an Arbitrator

Combatting Delays in Arbitration: Expediting the Process

Managing Recalcitrant Parties in Arbitration

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